Modafinil is a drug used to treat hypersomnolence of narcolepsy.
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Brand names of Modafinil include:
Modalert, Modvigil, Waklert, Artvigil.
What is Modafinil (Provigil) ?
Modafinil is an analeptic, a central nervous system stimulant. In medicine, it is used to treat drowsiness in narcolepsy, ADHD symptoms, etc. No less popular is the use of the drug for non-medical purposes. In Russia, Modafinil is banned - it is included in the list of narcotic and psychotropic drugs since 2012. The reason for the ban is the lack of knowledge of the effect of the analeptic on the human body, in particular, the central nervous system.
Influence on a person
Modafinil increases the transmission of excitation of nerve impulses. The drug works at almost all levels of the central nervous system, increasing the synthesis of monamine-serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, histamine, dopamine. The effect of Modafinil is aimed at stimulating shortened cycles of recovery of activity potentials, which leads to prolongation of arousal and its trace reactions — the response of nerve cells to the influence of the stimulus for some time even after the end of taking and acting on the drug.
Modafinil improves mood, increases stress resistance and performance. Temporarily reduces the need for sleep, relieves the feeling of fatigue. There is an improvement in cognitive or cognitive functions in individuals with initially low intelligence indicators-attention, memory, and thinking are stimulated. Due to the activation of serotonin and dopamine receptors, the risk of developing depression is reduced, sociability and sociability are increased.
Undesirable effects when using Modafinil are associated with its direct effect on the central nervous system. Regular use of the drug, especially for non-medical purposes, depletes and disrupts the endogenous synthesis of all neurotransmitters (serotonin, epinephrine, etc.). This leads to psychoneurological and somatic negative changes.
- headaches that occur due to increased glutamate concentration or dehydration;
- insomnia as a result of increased stress hormones;
- multiple allergic reactions due to histamine concentration;
- anxiety and increased anxiety;
- long-term loss of appetite caused by CNS stimulating effects;
- disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea, gas formation due to irritation of the intestinal tissue by the products of modafinil catabolism;
- thirst, dry mouth, as a result of activation of muscarinic receptors;
- feverish state due to excessive stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, which can lead to serious consequences, convulsions;
- occurrence of hallucinations due to neurological dysfunction;
- depression as a result of a sharp drop in dopamine.
Most often, side effects of the central action develop insomnia, dry mouth and loss of appetite, increased anxiety, headaches, and dizziness. Less often, there are adverse reactions from the gastrointestinal tract — diarrhea, nausea, vomiting. Individual intolerance to the drug, accompanied by urticaria, itching, and Quincke's edema, is not excluded.
Sometimes there are side effects such as fever, indicating excessive stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. In this case, the hypothalamus loses control of homeostasis, which leads to more serious complications in the form of seizures against the background of changes in blood composition. Some hallucinations and delusions indicate neuropsychiatric dysfunctions that a person had before taking Modafinil.
Modafinil: effect on the body
Effect on the body-Verimedapplication of Modafinil increases performance and mental processes suppress the feeling of fatigue and the need for sleep. At the same time, it increases concentration, logical and analytical thinking, and memorization of information.
Increases job satisfaction, motivation, confidence in yourself and your abilities, and raises your mood. Reduces feelings of anxiety, depression, depression, and irritability.
Provigil is often used independently without medical indications, buying from illegal distributors. It has gained the greatest popularity among athletes, students, and young people whose activities are associated with physical and psychological overload. It is used by users of methamphetamine and analogs to increase the cognitive functions of the brain and is used for withdrawal symptoms.
Addiction and withdrawal syndrome
According to experts, Modafinil does not activate the neural pathways of metabolism, which is noted in other types of drug and drug addiction. Therefore, it is believed that this drug has a low threshold of addiction compared to other drugs of central action.
It is unlikely that Modafinil is used as a narcotic drug in the circle of drug addicts. The drug is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms in people with alcohol and gambling addiction, methamphetamine, cocaine, and other drug addictions. In such cases, Modafinil relieves increased impulsivity, softens painful cravings for banned substances, and improves brain function.
The reasons for this condition are the formation of tolerance to the drug and taking it in higher doses compared to therapeutic or individual characteristics of the body. Symptoms of withdrawal syndrome include cognitive decline, depression, nervousness, chronic fatigue, and headaches.
Withdrawal of the drug causes multiple unpleasant reactions:
- from the gastrointestinal tract — digestive disorders, nausea;
- liver failure;
- from the central nervous system — anxiety, depression, increased nervousness;
- cognitive decline and frequent headaches;
- severe fatigue, shortness of breath;
- bouts of hypertension.
Toxicity and overdose
With an intentional or accidental overdose of Modafinil, there is an increase in blood pressure and tachycardia, which indicates disorders in the cardiovascular system and provokes the risk of heart attacks and strokes. Many patients report intense headaches that are not relieved by analgesics and continue for 2-3 days. Complete the picture of an overdose of Modafinil insomnia, increased nervousness, and depressive mood.
In toxic doses, all analeptics, including Modafinil, provoke the development of seizures, so sometimes these drugs are called convulsive poisons. Mixing the drug with opioids and alcoholic beverages is fraught with the development of deep intoxication, damage to the respiratory center, cardiac arrest, and death of a person.
- Ishizuka T, Murotani T. Modanifil activates the histaminergic system through the orexinergic neurons. 2010;483(3):193–196. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] [www.nature.com]